Chondral (Articular Cartilage) Defects
Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping. The articular cartilage does not have a direct blood supply, so it has less capacity to repair itself. Once the cartilage is torn, it cannot heal easily, which can lead to degeneration of the articular surface and to the development of osteoarthritis.
The damage in the articular cartilage can affect people of all ages. It can be damaged by trauma such as accidents, mechanical injury, such as a fall, or from degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis), occurring in older people.
Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome
Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists and soccer players.
The patella, also called kneecap, is a small flat triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is a sesamoid bone embedded in a tendon that connects the muscles of the thigh to the shinbone (tibia). The function of the patella is to protect the front part of the knee.
Lateral patellar compression syndrome can result from poor alignment of the kneecap, complete or partial dislocation, overuse, tight or weak thigh muscles, flat feet, or direct trauma to the knee.
The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid, which reduces friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess, resulting in its accumulation in the back of your knee. A Baker’s cyst or popliteal cyst is a fluid-filled swelling that develops into a lump behind the knee. This causes stiffness, tightness and pain behind your knee. It is commonly seen in women and people aged over 40 (although it can develop at any age).