Elbow Fractures in Children
The elbow is a joint that consists of three bones – the humerus (upper arm bone), radius (forearm bone) and ulna (forearm bone). An elbow fracture most commonly occurs when your child falls on an outstretched arm. It can lead to severe pain in the elbow and numbness in the hand. Fractures are more common in children due to their physical activities as well as their bone properties. Children’s bones have an area of developing cartilage tissue called a growth plate, present at the end of long bones, which will eventually develop into solid bone as the child grows.
Your child’s doctor first evaluates your child’s arm for signs of damage to the blood vessels and nerves. An X-ray examination is then ordered to confirm and determine the severity of the fracture.
Olecranon (Elbow) Fractures
Three bones, the humerus, radius and ulna make up the elbow joint. The bones are held together by ligaments that provide stability to the joint. Muscles and tendons around the bones coordinate the movements and help in performing various activities. Elbow fractures may occur from trauma, resulting from a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the elbow, abnormal twist to the joint beyond its functional limit, etc.
Olecranon fractures are fractures that occur at the bony prominence of the ulna. The fractures, if stable, are treated using an immobilising splint followed by a regimen of motion exercises. However, severe fractures require surgical repair.
Radial Head Fractures
The elbow is a junction between the forearm and upper arm. The elbow joint is made up of 3 bones, namely the humerus bone in the upper arm, which joins with the radius and ulna bones in the forearm. The elbow joint is essential for the movement of your arms for daily activities. The head of the radius bone is cup-shaped and corresponds to the spherical surface of the humerus. The injury in the head of the radius causes impairment in the function of the elbow. Radial head fractures are very common and occur in almost 20% of acute elbow injuries. Elbow dislocations are generally associated with radial head fractures. Radial head fractures are more common in women than in men and occur more frequently in the age group of 30 and 40 years.
Distal Humerus Fractures of Elbow
Shoulder Injuries in Throwing Athletes